I don’t think the standard type in Visual studio is the best one just because it is what is shipped.
Instead I test different and from 10+ years I have come to the conclusions:
1) Sans serif is better than serif.
2) Fixed width is not important – it is very seldom I need anything aligned by the count of characters.
3) Proportional width packs more characters per cm without losing readability.
Of all the fonts I have tested I still believe Arial is the best compromise.
When I started out I believed that capital letter O looking similar to digit 0 would be a problem but have come to the conclusion that in reality it is not.
Fonts tested: (I have tested way more but just recently decided to write them down and cannot remember all)
Arial // yes
Arial narrow // Too dense to be readable on screen; for me at least.
Comics // Did not work for programming – too hard to read.
Consolas // Nope, too stiff.
Courier // Serif, does not work, too slow to read.
Leelawade UI // Works alrigh.
Malgun Gothic // A bit to wide for my taste. Also a bit “squarish”.
Microsoft new Tai Lue // Nice. A tad to wide for my taste.
Microsoft MHei // Lighter than Microsoft new Tai Lue. Maybe too light. About as wide.
Microsoft YaHei // Could be more narrow. Easy to read.
Nirmala UI Semilight // Pixly.
Segoe UI // Currently testing.